Difference between revisions of "Slashes and hyphens"

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There is a great deal of confusion on the use of slashes, hyphens, spaces, or no spaces to indicate the combination of techniques, particularly when acronyms and abbreviations are used.
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:<big>''For specific usage, see the [[:category:acronym|list of acronyms]]''</big>
  
 
{{Slashes and hyphens}}
 
{{Slashes and hyphens}}
  
==Chicago Manual of Style==
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==Books==
See http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/
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* Hyphenated and Alternative Methods of Detection in Chromatography '''2012''' ISBN 9780849390777
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* LC-NMR and Other Hyphenated NMR Techniques '''2011''' ISBN 9781118135389 
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* Hyphenated Techniques in Grape and Wine Chemistry '''2008''' ISBN 9780470061879
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* Hyphenated Techniques in Speciation Analysis '''2003''' ISBN 978-0-85404-545-7
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* Data Analysis for Hyphenated Techniques '''1996''' ISBN 0444822372
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* Trac: Directory of Hyphenated Techniques '''1994''' ISBN 0444821260
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* Hyphenated Techniques in Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction '''1992''' ISBN 9780444887948
  
The 16th edition of the Chicago Manual of Style indicates that slashes are most commonly used to indicate alternatives in the "and/or" formulation, for example "Hercules/Heracles."(CMOS 6.104) The CMOS also indicates that the slash is occasionally use to indicate "and" as in "Jekyll/Hyde." The "per" and "divided" by meanings are also noted.  
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==Reviews==
 
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* Advanced hyphenated chromatographic-mass spectrometry in mycotoxin determination: Current status and prospects '''2013''' {{doi}}10.1002/mas.21377
The CMOS big table of hyphenation rules states that two nouns indicating two functions (the first noun doesn't modify the second) are hyphenated in both the noun and adjective forms.(CMOS 7.85)
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* Hyphenated separation techniques for complex polymers '''2013''' {{doi}}10.1039/C3PY21095B 
 
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* Advanced and Hyphenated Techniques for Nano-Level Analysis of Iron in Water '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1080/10408347.2012.677720
==American Chemical Society Style Guide==
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: Recent evolution and applications '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1016/j.chroma.2012.02.018
Chapter 10 of the ACS Style Guide[http://pubs.acs.org/isbn/9780841239999] discusses editorial style including the use of hyphens and abbreviations.
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* A critical review on the use of modern sophisticated hyphenated tools in the characterization of impurities and degradation products '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1016/j.jpba.2012.03.044
 
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* Multi-Block Polyurethanes via RAFT End-Group Switching and Their Characterization by Advanced Hyphenated Techniques '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1021/ma301117k
Specific rules for combined methods are not given, but there are several examples in a list of abbreviations use space, no space, hyphen, en-dash, or slash. Surprisingly, neither GC-MS nor LC-MS are given in the list. /MAS.
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* Hyphenated techniques as tools for speciation analysis of metal-based pharmaceuticals: developments and applications '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1007/s00216-012-5915-9
 
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* Hyphenated chromatographic techniques for structural characterization and determination of masked mycotoxins '''2012''' {{doi}}10.1016/j.chroma.2012.02.057
Specific examples are: and CP MAS are also indicated. Other examples are fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR, FT/IR, FT-IR, and FT IR), glow discharge mass spectrometry (GDMS), high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS), isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), laser desorption mass spectrometry (LDMS), matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass
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* Overview of hyphenated techniques using an ICP-MS detector with an emphasis on extraction techniques for measurement of metalloids by .1016/j.microc.2012.03.017
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* Introduction to hyphenated techniques and their applications in pharmacy '''2010''' {{doi}}10.4103/2229-4708.72222
 
 
==American Institute of Physics Style Manual==
 
The AIP style manual uses the hyphen exclusively for combined terms.[http://www.aip.org/pubservs/style/4thed/toc.html]
 
 
 
==Mass Spectrometry Desk Reference==
 
David Sparkman in his [[Mass Spectrometry Desk Reference]] recommends the use of the slash to indicate the combination of techniques and the hyphen to indicate the combination of instruments. Thus
 
 
 
:Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS)
 
:Gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS)
 
 
 
similarly
 
 
 
:time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS)
 
:time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS)
 
 
 
Ionization methods are set apart by a space, cor example
 
 
 
:electron ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (EI TOFMS)
 
 
 
==Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry==
 
The journal Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry has in the past given instructions to authors on combined techniques. For example, from the ''July 12, 2009'' RCM:
 
 
 
The Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry author guidelines state
 
 
 
:"A single analytical technique, or a type of instrument, is abbreviated without hyphens. Thus, TOFMS, FTICRMS."
 
 
 
:"A hyphen is used when highlighting a particular component or feature of an instrument or technique. Thus, MALDI-TOFMS, ESI-MS/MS. When 2 or more different analytical techniques are coupled in tandem, this is represented by a solidus placed between the abbreviations for the techniques. Thus we write Py/GC/EI-MS, CZE/TOFMS."
 
 
 
Thus a hyphen is used to highlight an instrument component and a slash (also called a solidus, virgule, diagonal, stroke, or separatrix) is used to denote combined techniques. [[Mass Spec Desk Reference|Sparkman]] suggests that, for example, GC/MS be used to describe the technique of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection and GC-MS to indicate the instrument. Thus one uses a GC-MS to obtain a GC/MS.
 
 
 
The revised IUPAC Standard Definitions of Terms Relating to Mass Spectrometry document must contain a general recommendation on when to use punctuation, when to use a hyphen and when to use a slash when describing combined techniques.  
 
  
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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*[[Abbreviations]]
 
*[[Abbreviations]]
 
*[[Combined techniques]]
 
*[[Combined techniques]]
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[[Category:Style guide]]

Revision as of 15:24, 20 June 2018